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Kyoto Agreement Members

10 April 2021 No Comment

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon called on world leaders to agree on an agreement to curb global warming at the 69th session of the UN General Assembly on 23 September 2014 in New York. The next climate summit was held in Paris in 2015, the date of the Paris Agreement, which succeeded the Kyoto Protocol. In 2001, the last meeting (COP6 bis) continued in Bonn [88] at which the necessary decisions were taken. After some concessions, proponents of the protocol (under the leadership of the European Union) managed to secure the agreement of Japan and Russia by allowing for increased use of carbon sinks. The United States withdrew from the agreement in 2001 and unfairly characterized the treaty because it only required industrialized countries to reduce their emissions and felt that it would hamper the U.S. economy. An important directive in the agreement is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century, while taking steps to limit them to 1.5 degrees Celsius. It also provides developed countries with the opportunity to help developing countries and provides a framework for transparent monitoring and communication of countries` climate goals. In 2011, Canada, Japan and Russia said they would not meet other Kyoto targets.

[106] The Canadian government announced on December 12, 2011, effective December 15, 2012, its possible withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol, effective December 15, 2012[107] Canada has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions to 6% below 1990 levels by 2012, but in 2009 emissions were 17% to 190 higher. The Harper government has prioritized oil sands development in Alberta and de-introduced the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Environment Minister Peter Kent called Canada`s responsibility for “enormous financial sanctions” under the treaty unless he withdrew. [106] [108] He also suggested that the recently signed Durban Agreement could provide another way forward. [109] The Harper government has said it will find a “Made in Canada” solution. Canada`s decision was generally not well received by representatives of other ratification countries. [109] The United States signed the protocol on November 12, 1998,[98] during the Clinton presidency. However, in order to become binding on the United States, the treaty had to be ratified by the Senate, which had already adopted the non-binding Byrd Hagel resolution in 1997, in which it expressed the rejection of an international agreement that did not require developing countries to reduce their emissions and “would seriously harm the U.S. economy.” The resolution was adopted by 95-0.

[99] Although the Clinton administration signed the treaty,[100] it was never submitted to the Senate for ratification. After a series of lectures entangled in differences of opinion, the delegates of COP21, held in Paris in 2015, signed a comprehensive but non-binding agreement to limit the rise in global average temperature to a maximum of 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels, while maintaining this increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels. The pioneering agreement, signed by the 196 signatories of the UNFCCC, effectively replaced the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, a review of progress every five years and the development of a $100 billion fund by 2020 – which was to be replenished annually – was imposed to help developing countries implement technologies that are not generated by greenhouse gases.

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